Parents who spend a lot of time on their phones or watching television during family activities such as meals, playtime, and bedtime could influence their long-term relationships with their children - due to 'technoference'. Technoference is defined as everyday interruptions in face-to-face interactions because of technology devices. Recent studies
estimate that parents use television, computers, tablets and smartphones for nine hours per day on average. A third of this time is spent on smartphones, which due to their portability are often used during family activities such as meals, playtime, and bedtime—all-important times involved in shaping a child's social-emotional wellbeing. When parents are on their devices research shows that they have fewer conversations with their children and are more hostile when their offspring try to get their attention. In turn, children demonstrate more frustration, hyperactivity, whining, sulking and tantrums.